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Process simulation: NdFeB permanent magnet production

Belo Fernandes, Ivan; Abadias Llamas, Alejandro; Reuter, Markus

Contact person(s)
Ivan Belo Fernandes
Researcher(s)
Alejandro ABADIAS LLAMAS
Supervisor(s)
Markus Andreas REUTER
Work package leader(s)
Sandra BIRTEL

This file contains an HSC model for NdFeB permanent magnet production, from ore processing to magnet production and two possible recycling routes. Data to build the model is found in key literature studies and from internal project data obtained by the various partners in four work packages (rare earth oxide separation, reduction and purification, alloy design, and powder magnet production).

The model was used to perform a resource efficiency, including exergy, and environmental impact (LCA) evaluation of the life cycle of a NdFeB permanent magnet produced from primary and secondary resources. This work has been submitted to JOM, in its special edition “Thermodynamic modeling of sustainable non-ferrous metals production” and has been accepted for publication with a digital object identifier (DOI): https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-020-04185-6. Detailed information about the literature sources used for developing the model can be found in the original research paper. The model was built using HSC Chemistry version 9.9 (https://www.outotec.com/products-and-services/technologies/digital-solutions/hsc-chemistry/).

Funding agency: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF). Grant number / name: REGINA - Rare Earth Global Industry and New Applications - project (funding number 033R185B), promoted within the Framework Program FONA - Forschung für nachhaltige Entwicklung, under the funding priority CLIENT II - International Partnerships for Sustainable Innovation. Related publication: Fernandes, I.B., Abadías Llamas, A. & Reuter, M.A. Simulation-Based Exergetic Analysis of NdFeB Permanent Magnet Production to Understand Large Systems. JOM 72, 2754–2769 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11837-020-04185-6
Embargoed Access

Files are currently under embargo but will be publicly accessible after July 31, 2021.


The model is generated based on literature data, and discussions and data generated by the project. The model and documents are available to every member of the REGINA consortium. Institutes and researchers outside the consortium may request access by submitting a motivated request including the need and application of the model. Each request will be evaluated by the REGINA consortium. Submission of a motivated request does not guarantee access.


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